Civil state

A civil state implies a state that is not managed by religious, military or police establishments, but rather run by elected civilians subject to questioning and popular and legal control. It is an alternative to military rule or the rule of clerics or religious establishments.

Some link the establishment of a civil state to the appointment of civilians as heads of military and police establishments, like the Ministries of Interior Affairs and Defence. A civil state is increasingly being favoured following the rise in the percentage of cases of torture at police stations which reached 900 documented cases in the period between 1993 and 2010, according to the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights.

Supporters of the appointment of civilian leaders at the Interior Affairs and Defence Ministries believe that the position of the minister is first and foremost a political position, as the minister is not requested to perform tasks such as regulating traffic or arresting outlaws, but rather, required to be a politician with good management skills. Supporters of a civil state also believe that the current period needs a civilian minister capable of reshaping the image of the two ministries before the nation, especially that of the Ministry of Interior Affairs. They also believe that a minister appointed from outside the ministry would detect faults overlooked by the people from within the ministry.

Meanwhile, opponents believe some positions must be occupied by army or police officials and cannot be held by civilians who do not have any education or training as army or police officials. Opponents also believe that the candidates’ specialisation has to be taken into consideration when selecting ministers. Also, tensions in certain regions influence decisions regarding who is appointed within the ruling structure.